Academic session II (2022)

November 9, 2022
13:40 – 16:10 (CET)

Chair: Dr. Anna H. Jankowiak, Director of the International Cooperation Center, Wroclaw University of Economics and Business

Dr. Grzegorz Mazur
Poznań University of Economics and Business, Poland
EU agri-food exports to Korea and Japan – experiences from FTAs
One of the underlying reasons for the EU’s FTAs with South Korea and Japan was to address trade barriers for European food and agricultural products exported to those countries and to secure undisturbed access for EU products to the markets of both partners. The general aim of the paper was to identify the main trends in EU’s agri-food exports to Korea and Japan in the context of agreed FTAs. The presentation includes the analysis of the main tendencies in selected trade sections, comparing the initial experiences from the trade liberalised under FTAs with ex-ante FTA predictions as well as impact assessments.
Dr. hab. Paweł Pasierbiak
University of Maria Curie-Sklodowska, Lublin, Poland
Dr. hab. Tomasz Białowąs
University of Maria Curie-Sklodowska, Lublin, Poland
Production Networks Development Between Selected CEE and Asian Economies
The development of international production chains has progressed since the mid-1990s and is now a signature feature of the world economy. Many factors which have made the modern production process often involve the division and location of its phases in different parts of the world. At the same time, it favours the development of international trade. European and Asian, and North American countries are strongly involved in regional value chains, creating geographic blocks of cooperating entities. Nevertheless, production cooperation also includes interregional links. These are the issues of interest in this study. The analysis covers the development of production networks between selected countries in Central and Eastern Europe and selected Asian countries in 1995-2018. In particular, the following issues are analysed: 1) the development of trade based on gross value and domestic value added; 2) the origin of the foreign value added; 3) the commodity structure of the trade.
Martyna Korotkiewicz Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland
The EU-Australia FTA: what do these two partners diverge on?
The EU-Australia FTA is seen as an important initiative for both partners, who all want to become leaders in rule-setting in regional trade. Considering the EU’s increasing involvement in the Indo-Pacific, and the recently developed strategy for this region, it is clear that for this agreement there is more at stake than just economic benefits. However, in spite of the importance of achieving a shared vision of regional order, the EU and Australia continuously disagree on certain issues. Historically, agriculture has played a significant role in stalling any progress in trade talks between the two partners. More recent issues revolve around the inclusion of social standards in the FTA, which Australia is not willing to accept. This problem is discussed as an important aspect of the negotiations, because a significant part of becoming leaders in setting the rules is becoming the example for the rest to follow.
Dr. hab. Artur Klimek
Wrocław University of Economics and Business, Poland
Economic upgrading: global value chains participation and foreign direct investment
This paper links global value chains (GVC) integration and the operations of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the context of upgrading the host economies. Economic upgrading is referred to as a higher proportion of domestic value added in exports as a result of foreign direct investment (FDI). Particular attention was paid to the impact of GVC on selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) economies. An econometric model was estimated using panel data of 44 sectors for four CEE economies over the period 1995-2018. A primary source of data was the latest edition of the TiVA (Trade in Value Added) database published at the end of 2021. The most important variable in explaining domestic contribution to GVC were flows of foreign inputs. Backward linkages are crucial for building the GVC presence of the economies. The variables of interest – FDI stocks and flows – have a moderate and mixed impact on the level of domestic content in the analysed economies.
Tomasz Bojnicki
University of Maria Curie-Sklodowska, Lublin, Poland
Cooperation between Poland and the Republic of Korea after 1989. Determinants and prospects
The rise of Asian economies in the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in intensified political and economic cooperation among countries in the region. One example of dynamic economic development, as well as increased innovation in technological and military solutions, is South Korea, and accordingly, Poland aims to develop cooperation with South Korea. In the economic sphere, cooperation and investment are taking place in such sectors as the electronics industry, electromobility and transportation infrastructure. There are good prospects for cooperation between Poland and Korea, which could mean a number of benefits for Poland in terms of access to modern technologies, innovation policy solutions, environmental protection and energy, and the arms industry. The main purpose of the article was to define the role of South Korea in Poland’s foreign and economic policy, as well as to identify the priorities and prospects for cooperation in the economic and military fields.
Krzysztof Karwowski
SGH Warsaw School of Economics
The Chinese Space Programme – a copy of Western patterns or new creativity?
The Space Exploration Programme carried out by the People’s Republic of China is achieving new quality and impact over the last twenty years. Past copies of American and Soviet concepts were treated by the Chinese as milestones, and precisely recreated based on Russian technologies and, with time, their own production capacities. However, more and more new inventions and missions are either original Chinese products or created as a new approach to the subject, making China the creator of trends in space research. This article aims to highlight the importance of the space programme for the Chinese leadership, list previously unseen projects (such as quantum communication, concepts for new space propulsion vehicles, orbital energy) as well as their position in East Asia’s security architecture.
Prof. dr hab. Bogusława Drelich-Skulska
Wrocław University of Economics and Business, Poland
Dr. hab. Sebastian Bobowski
Wrocław University of Economics and Business, Poland
Intra-Regional Trade in East Asia – the Perspective of China
The authors studied intra-industry trade in East Asia through the prism of bilateral trade flows between China – the largest regional economy in nominal terms – and the other fourteen Member States of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), i.e. Japan, the Republic of Korea, ten ASEAN Member States, Australia, and New Zealand. The paper’s main objective was to characterise the intra-regional merchandise trade of China in the period 2012-2021, including disaggregated data from the automotive industry. Using the UN Comtrade database, the authors analysed intra-industry bilateral trade flows disaggregated to six-digit HS tariff codes. The authors recognised the automotive industry as an essential sector of intra-regional trade and division of labour, a trigger of GVCs’ expansion and networking in manufacturing activities inside East Asia. The most important trends in the automotive trade were identified, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis.
Julia Majewska
Wrocław University of Economics and Business, Poland
The role of Chinese market for selected European car brands
The automotive industry in the era of increasing globalization and surrounded by numerous competitors gathers business operators that want to satisfy their customers. One of the strategic goals of car manufacturers is to make a profit. For this purpose, they expand into foreign markets. Currently, the largest market in the world is China. The aim of the study is to investigate the importance of China for selected car brands using numerical data. The research method used to identify the problem is the literature analysis and the statistical method. Due to the number of inhabitants, rising living standards and urbanization, the Chinese market plays a key role for European entrepreneurs. Its importance is visible in the number of vehicles sold, factories located, and the importance of innovative solutions expected by Chinese customers.
Alicja Kozak
Wrocław University of Economics and Business, Poland
The sources of different approaches of European and Asian smart cities for coping with the COVID-19 pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted states, regions and cities, among them –  smart cities, which are the subject of this study. During the turbulent times, they were forced to emerge new ways of functioning in various spheres (from mobility to public health). The high usage of ICT technologies and the innovative character of such cities formed a foundation for a rapid digitalization transformation during the pandemic. However, the approaches to coping with the pandemic vary, especially between Europe and Asian smart cities –  the source of the difference springs from their specific development paths. In a collective approach, European cities are much more like each other than Asian cities, they cooperate, and the role of citizen participation is significant. In Asia, the process of shaping smart cities is strongly diversified – for example, some of them are built from scratch, some as formed as business centres and others as technological hubs. Moreover, advanced Internet of Things system is often implemented as one of the basic engines of development. In Europe, this system is less common and extensive as well as has a different structure. Apart from the above-indicated differences, cultural ones have played a significant role in responding to the pandemic.